White Papers

Modular Power and Cooling Utility in a Box - Driving Efficiencies through Rapidly Deployed and Right-Sized Power and Cooling (#101)

Learn about the reliability improvements, efficiency and financial gains to be had in an integrated continuous power and cooling system. These streamlined containerized units are focused around a flywheel UPS system electrically coupled with a standby generator using standard switchgear. This type of approach can be deployed in an ISO container as a system level approach.

Active Power CleanSource® UPS: High Efficiency UPS Systems for a Power Hungry World (#114)

Learn why energy efficiency for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) equipment is so important, what can influence UPS energy efficiency and how it can directly impact energy costs. This paper will compare the differences in energy efficiencies among various UPS topologies available today through both laboratory and actual field testing. These studies demonstrate that flywheel based UPS technology achieves much higher efficiency ratings as compared to legacy battery based UPS systems, resulting in substantial cost savings over the life of the system.

Operation and Performance of a Flywheel-Based Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) System (#108)

Understand how an integrated flywheel based UPS system operates; how it's configured for mission critical applications; and how it performs. These systems are battery-free and incorporate a modular design that allows field capacity expansion and internal redundancy.

Reliability Assessment of Integrated Flywheel UPS versus Double-Conversion UPS with Batteries (#103)

According to a study by Mass. based MTechnology, Inc., the Active Power flywheel based CleanSource 300 UPS is seven times less likely to fail than a conventional double conversion UPS with batteries. Understand the approach MTechnology took in conducting the quantitative analysis using fault trees to represent the logic of failure for the systems with the knowledge of what combinations of utility and UPS components failures result in system failure.

Theory of Operation: Low Speed Flywheel (#106)

Review the concept and operation of a flywheel system used as a direct current (DC) energy source in three-phase UPS applications in place of chemical batteries or other short term energy storage technologies.

15 Seconds versus 15 Minutes: Designing for High Availability (#107)

This paper will discuss the issue of required ride-through time in a mission critical UPS (uninterruptible power supply) application. Long-standing practice has required 15 minutes or more runtime due to antiquated perceptions.  A UPS system can be designed with much higher reliability and predictability by using more reliable backup energy methods such as flywheel technology and applying proper design technique, without requiring 15 minutes of ride-through.

Integrated Flywheel Based UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) System for Broadcast Applications (#110)

Television transmitters are extremely sensitive to certain power disturbances. Learn how the application of an integrated flywheel based UPS system can protect critical broadcasting equipment and how these systems perform during crowbar events. These events can wreak havoc on broadcast television transmitters, causing damage and costly transmission interruptions.

Integrated Flywheel Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Systems for Industrial Applications (#109)

Highly digitized processes from the paper mill to the water bottling plant have spurred significant growth in industrial applications that have turned mission critical. In an attempt to drive efficiencies, manufacturing processes are now using highly sophisticated equipment. Learn how integrated UPS systems can effectively and predictably protect mission critical computer loads that directly drive manufacturing output.

Data Center Thermal Runaway (#105)

Examine the impact of a power outage in a medium to high density mission critical data center environment and the associated cooling challenges. In the event of a power disruption, ambient temperature can rapidly increase since a power outage will usually force the data center's cooling system to shutdown.

Understanding Flywheel Energy Storage: Does High Speed Really Imply a Better Design? (#112)

Learn how energy is stored in a flywheel using the simple concept of a massive ball attached to a limited strength string. This concept will also be used to better understand the relationship between flywheel mass and strength properties. Understand how material strength influences the performance attributes of flywheels, examining two types of materials – steel and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy (GFRE).

Quantitative Reliability Assessment of Ball Bearings versus Active Magnetic Bearings for Flywheel Energy Storage Systems (#111)

An industry myth heard frequently today is that energy storage flywheel systems that use magnetic bearings are more reliable than those supported by ball bearings. However, these claims are based on unsubstantiated, non qualified presumptions. Understand the basic differences between ball bearings magnetic bearings used in flywheel energy storage systems and review a quantitative reliability comparison which effectively refutes these claims.

Disposal of Lead Acid Batteries (#104)

Understand the regulatory, legal and financial considerations of proper decommissioning, removal and disposal of wet cell and valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery types used in UPS systems in accordance with current U.S. federal and state legislation.